The diagrams show the arrangement of particles in the three states of matter. Each circle represents a particle.

Solid liquid gas particle diagrams

1. The formation of solid iron from molten iron involves a change in arrangement from …
  • A.   X to Y
  • B.   Y to Z
  • C.   Z to Y
  • D.   Z to X
2. The change from Y to X is called …
  • A.   melting
  • B.   freezing
  • C.   condensation
  • D.   evaporation
3. The three states of matter arranged in order from least to most energy is …
  • A.   Z, Y, X
  • B.   Y, Z, X
  • C.   Y, X, Z
  • D.   X, Y, Z
4. Which statement is correct about the movement or arrangement of the particles of a substance?
  • A.   The particles do not move at all in the gaseous state
  • B.   The particles vibrate around fixed positions in the liquid state
  • C.   The particles move randomly in the liquid state
  • D.   The particles slide past each other in the solid state

5. Potassium manganate(VII) crystals were added to beakers of hot and cold water as shown:

Diffusion experiment

The colour of the potassium manganate(VII) spreads out in both beakers.
In which beaker does the colour spread faster and why?

  Colour spreads faster in… Explanation
A cold water Particles move faster at higher temperature
B cold water Particles move slower at higher temperature
C Hot water Particles move faster at higher temperature
D Hot water Particles move slower at higher temperature

6. A teacher set up the following demonstration.  Ammonia gas, NH3, and hydrogen chloride gas, HCl, are released from the solutions.

The diagram shows the apparatus at the start of the experiment. During the experiment a white ring forms.

ammonia diffusion experiment


At which position does the ring appear, X, Y or Z? Why?

  Position Reason
A X Ammonia molecules travel slower because they are lighter
B Y All gas molecules travel at the same speed
C Z Ammonia molecules travel faster because they are lighter
D Z Ammonia molecules travel faster because they are heavier
7. In which of the following processes is there a large increase in the space between the particles?
  • A.   boiling and condensation
  • B.   condensation and diffusion
  • C.   diffusion and evaporation
  • D.   evaporation and freezing

8. Substances can be classified as elements, compounds or mixtures. In the table below select the row which shows the correct classification for each of the substances.

       diamond iodine Magnesium oxide air
A element compound compound mixture
B compound element mixture compound
C element element compound mixture
D compound compound mixture element


Q9-11 Select the most appropriate term to complete the sentences about the dissolving of sodium chloride in water:

9. Solid sodium chloride was dissolved in water to form a sodium chloride .
10. The sodium chloride is the .
11. The water is the .